Penegasan Peran Negara dalam Pemenuhan Hak Warga Negara Atas Air

Authors

  • Helmi Kasim Pusat Penelitian dan Pengkajian Perkara, Pengelolaan TIK Kepaniteraan dan Sekretariat Jenderal Mahkamah Konstitusi Jl. Medan Merdeka Barat No. 6 Jakarta 10110

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1228

Keywords:

The Right to Water, Control by The State, Monopoly

Abstract

This writing analyses access to water not merely as a right but as human  rights. Since the right to water constitues human rights, then constitutionally, the state, mainly the government, is obliged to respect, fulfil and protect that right. In order that the government can perform its obligation to fulfil the right of citizens   to water, the sate should put control of water under the power of the state. Thus, there are two perspectives in fulfilling the rights of citizens to water, human rights perspective and the perspective of state control. From the perspective of human rights, the 1945 Constitution has stipulated the obligation of the state in fulfilling the human rights of citizens including the right to water as stated in Article 28I paragrahp (4). From the perspective of state control over water resources, the 1945 Constitution has also determined constitutional standard as stipulated in Article 33. This concept of state control based on Article 33 has been interpreted by the Constitutional Court in its decisions. Specifically, in the decision concerning the law on water resources, the Court returned control over water to the state. The Court  set some limitations on how to utilize water resources. Private corporations are still allowed to participate in water management with strict conditions. The enhancement of this control by the state over water is intended to guarantee the fulfilment of the right of citizens to water. As an idea, monopoly of the state over water resources might be also be considered just like monopoly of state over electricity.

References

Acemoglu, Daren et al., “A Dynamic Theory of Resoure Wars”, http://economics.mit.edu/files/8041, diakses tanggal 18 Maret 2015.
Harian Kompas, “Jajak Pendapat Kompas. Momentum Negara Kembali Melayani Rakyat,” Kompas, (9 Maret 2015)
Harian Kompas, “Negara Belum Siap Kelola Air,” Kompas, (3 Maret 2015)
Jimly Asshiddiqie, Konstitusi dan Konstitusionalisme Indonesia, (Jakarta: Sekretariat Jenderal dan Kepaniteraan Mahkamah Konstitusi, 2005.
Mellina Williams, “Privatization and the Human Rights to Water: Challenges for the New Century”, Michigan Journal of International Law, Winter, 2007, 28 Mich. J. Int’l L. 469.
Randerson, James “David King: Iraq was the first ‘resource war’ of the century”, http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2009/feb/12/king-iraq-resources-war, diakses tanggal 18 Maret 2015.
Salman M. A. Salman dan Siobhan Mclnerney-Lankford, The Human Right to Water.
Legal and Policy Dimensions, Washington, D.C. : The World Bank, 2004
Suryadi, Suhardi “Hak atas Air Pasca Putusan MK,” Kompas, (24 Maret 2015) The Water Project, “For 1 Billion People. Safe Water is Scarce, http://thewaterproject.org/water_scarcity, diakses 17 Maret 2015.
Acemoglu, Daren et al., “A Dynamic Theory of Resoure Wars”, http://economics.mit.edu/files/8041, diakses tanggal 18 Maret 2015.
Randerson, James “David King: Iraq was the first ‘resource war’ of the century”, http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2009/feb/12/king-iraq-resources-war, diakses tanggal 18 Maret 2015.
The Water Project, “For 1 Billion People. Safe Water is Scarce, http://thewaterproject.org/water_scarcity, diakses 17 Maret 2015.
World Helath Organisation, The Right to Water, Prancis: WHO, 2003, http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/en/righttowater.pdf, diakses tanggal 4 Maret 2015.
Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/oasinstr/zoas10pe.htm
Arab Charter on Human Rights, http://www.humanrights.se/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Arab-Charter-on-Human-Rights.pdf
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/cedaw.pdf
General Comment No. 15 ICESCR http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/gencomm/escgencom15.htm#_ftnref6
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx
Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/women-protocol/#13
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml#a25

Published

2016-05-20

How to Cite

Kasim, Helmi. 2016. “Penegasan Peran Negara Dalam Pemenuhan Hak Warga Negara Atas Air”. Jurnal Konstitusi 12 (2):353-72. https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1228.

Issue

Section

Articles