Konsep Regulasi Berbasis Risiko: Telaah Kritis dalam Penerapannya pada Undang-Undang Cipta Kerja

Mohamad Mova Al'afghani, Bisariyadi Bisariyadi

Abstract


Undang-Undang Cipta Kerja menekankan pada kemudahan untuk melakukan usaha. Salah satu hal yang menjadi perhatian adalah penyederhanaan perizinan berusaha. Konsep Regulasi Berbasis Risiko menarik bagi program penyederhanaan perizinan karena diasumsikan bahwa penerapannya dapat mengurangi jumlah perizinan. Namun, penerapan analisis resiko untuk menapis izin merupakan sesuatu yang berbeda dengan penerapan konsep Regulasi Berbasis Risiko di negara-negara lain.  Selain itu, penerapan regulasi berbasis risiko juga perlu memperhatikan kritik yang tidak terakomodasi dalam Undang-Undang. Tulisan ini menjabarkan 4 (empat) kritik atas penerapan regulasi berbasis risiko dalam Undang-Undang Cipta Kerja, yaitu (i) format omnibus merancukan penilaian risiko, (ii) risiko volatilitas belum dipertimbangkan, (iii) risiko sistemik belum dipertimbangkan serta (iv) potensi “regulatory capture”. Secara konseptual, penerapan regulasi berbasis risiko memantik diskursus akademik mengenai pengertian regulasi secara luas yang telah jauh berkembang dari pemaknaan sempit dalam wacana akademik di Indonesia yang mendefinisikannya sebatas peraturan perundang-undangan semata.


Keywords


Regulasi, Regulasi Berbasis Risiko, Undang-Undang Cipta Kerja, Omnibus.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Buku

Bronwen Morgan dan Karen Yeung, An Introduction to Law and Regulation Text and Materials, cambridge University Press, 2007

Diani Sadiawati dkk, Strategi Nasional Reformasi Regulasi, Mewujudkan Regulasi Yang Sederhana Dan Tertib, 2015.

I Dewa Gede Palguna, Welfare State vs Globalisasi: Gagasan Negara Kesejahteraan di Indonesia, Depok, Rajawali Pres, 2019.

Mancur Olson, The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups, 21st ed, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2003.

Mohamad Mova Al Afghani, Legal Frameworks for Transparency in Water Utilities Regulation: A Comparative Perspective, Routledge, 2016.

Mohamad Hatta, Pelaksanaan Undang Undang Dasar 1945 Pasal 33, 1977.

Nita Rudra, Globalization and the Race to the Bottom in Developing Countries: Who Really Gets Hurt?, Cambridge University Press, 2008

Robert Baldwin, Martin Cave dan Martin Lodge, Understanding Regulation: Theory, Strategy, and Practice, 2nd Oxford University Press, 2012.

Tony Prosser, Law and the Regulators, USA, Oxford University Press, 1997.

Wolfgang Gaston Friedmann, The State and the Rule of Law in a Mixed Economy, Stevens, 1971.

Artikel Jurnal

Antonio Estache and Liam Wren-Lewis, "Toward a Theory of Regulation for Developing Countries: Following Jean-Jacques Laffont’s Lead", Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 47, 2009

Bisariyadi, “Pergulatan Paham Negara Kesejahteraan (Welfare State) dan Negara Regulasi (Regulatory State) dalam Perkara Konstitusional”, Ius Quia Iustum, No. 4, Vol. 23, Oktober 2016.

David Levi-Faur, “The Welfare State: A Regulatory Perspective”, Public Administration, 2014.

Ernesto Dal Bo, "Regulatory Capture: A Review", Oxford Review of Economic Policy, vol. 22, 2006.

George J. Stigler, “The Theory of Economic Regulation”, The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, 1971.

Giandomenico Majone, “From the Positive State to the Regulatory State: Causes and Consequences of Changes in Modes of Governance”, Journal of Public Policy, Vol. 17, Mei 1997.

Hilary Charlesworth, “A Regulatory Perspective on the International Human Rights System”, Regulatory Theory, 2017.

Hasanuddin Z. Abidin dkk, "Land Subsidence of Jakarta (Indonesia) and Its Relation with Urban Development" Natural Hazards, Vol. 59, 2011

HZ Abidin dkk, "Land Subsidence in Coastal City of Semarang (Indonesia): Characteristics, Impacts and Causes", Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, Vol. 4, 2013.

H Salim dkk, "Multi-Source Water Pollution in the Upper Citarum Watershed, Indonesia, with Special Reference to Its Spatiotemporal Variation" Environmental Sciences, 2005

Iman Anabtawi dan Steven L Schwarcz, "Regulating Systemic Risk: Towards an Analytical Framework", Notre Dame Law Review, Vol. 89, 2011, h. 1349.

Julia Black, “The Emergence of Risk-Based Regulation and the New Public Risk Management in the United Kingdom”, Public Law, 2005.

Julia Black dan Robert Baldwin, “When Risk-Based Regulation Aims Low: Approaches and Challenges: Aiming Low: Approaches and Challenges” Regulation & Governance Vol. 6., 2012.

Julia Black dan Robert Baldwin, “Really Responsive Risk-Based Regulation” Law & Policy, Vol. 32, 2010.

Joko Mariyono dkk, "Quantity and Monetary Value of Agrochemical Pollution from Intensive Farming in Indonesia" Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 29, 2018.

John TD Wood, “Consumer Protection: A Case of Successful Regulation”, Regulatory Theory. 2017.

Manfred S. Green, "Did the Hesitancy in Declaring COVID-19 a Pandemic Reflect a Need to Redefine the Term?" The Lancet, Vol 395, 2020.

Muhamad Azhar, "Omnibus Law sebagai Solusi Hiperregulasi Menuju Sonkronisasi Peraturan Perundang-undangan di Indonesia", Administrative Law and Governance Journal, Vol. 2, 2019

Mohamad Mova Al’Afghani, “Alienating the Private Sector: Implications of the Invalidation of the Water Law by the Indonesian Constitutional Court” Journal of Water Law Vol. 26

Pasquale Cirillo dan Nassim Nicholas Taleb, "Tail Risk of Contagious Diseases’ Nature Physics Vol. 16, 2020.

Richard A. Posner, “Natural Monopoly and Its Regulation” Stanford Law Review, Vol. 21, 1968.

Richard A. Posner, Theories of Economic Regulation. The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Autumn, 1974).

Richard L Revesz, "Rehabilitating Interstate Competition: Rethinking the Race-to-the-Bottom Rationale for Federal Environmental Regulation" New York University Law Review, Vol. 67, 1992.

Simon Butt dan Fritz Edward Siregar, “State Control over Natural Resources in Indonesia: Implications of the Oil and Natural Gas Law Case of 2012”, Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, Vol. 31, 2013.

Steven L. Schwarcz, "Systemic Risk" Georgetown Law Journal, Vol. 97, 2008.

Tim Connor dan Fiona Haines, “Networked Regulation as a Solution to Human Rights Abuse in Global Supply Chains? The Case of Trade Union Rights Violations by Indonesian Sports Shoe Manufacturers”, Theoretical Criminology, Vol. 17, 2013.

Laporan, Artikel Koran dan Website

A Estache dan L Wren-Lewis, "Anti-Corruption Policy in Theories of Sector Regulation", International Handbook on Corruption, Vol 2, 2011.

"Basel Framework", https://www.bis.org/basel_framework/index.htm diakses pada 7 November 2020.

CNN Indonesia, "6 Aturan Investasi Yang Diubah UU Cipta Kerja" (ekonomi) https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ekonomi/20201008143243-92-555996/6-aturan-investasi-yang-diubah-uu-cipta-kerja diakses pada 7 November 2020;

"Daftar Inventaris Masalah (DIM) RUU Cipta Kerja: Regulasi Berbasis Risiko" https://cloud.crpg.info/docs/dimcrpgomnibus.pdf.

"Daftar Inventarisasi Masalah (DIM) RUU Tentang Cipta Kerja Batang Tubuh Pasal 7 S/D Pasal 13 Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Republik Indonesia", http://www.dpr.go.id/dokakd/dokumen/BALEG-RJ-20200715-041205-6484.pdf.

Frederic Boehm, "Anti-Corruption Strategies as Safeguard for Public Service Sector Reforms" diakses pada 5 Oktober 2020;

Frederic Boehm, ‘Regulatory Capture Revisited – Is There and Anti-Corruption Agenda in Regulation?’ Rahma Tri, "UU Omnibus Law Cipta Kerja: Beda Risiko Bisnis, Beda Izinnya" (Tempo, 6 October 2020) https://bisnis.tempo.co/read/1393453/uu-omnibus-law-cipta-kerja-beda-risiko-bisnis-beda-izinnya diakses pada 7 November 2020.

Julia Black, “Risk-Based Regulation: Choices, Practices and Lessons Learnt”, Risk and Regulatory Policy: Improving the Governance of Risk, OECD, 2010.

John Bourn, “The Gaming Board: Better Regulation - National Audit Office (NAO) Report” Comptroller and Auditor General, 2000, HC 537, Session 1999-2000, https://www.nao.org.uk/report/the-gaming-board-better-regulation/ diakses pada 4 Mei 2020.

Joseph Norman, Yaneer Bar-Yam dan Nassim Nicholas Taleb, "Systemic Risk of Pandemic via Novel Pathogens—Coronavirus: A Note", New England Complex Systems Institute (January 26, 2020).

Kementerian ESDM, "Bahan Rapat Perizinan Berusaha Berbasis Risiko Pada Subsektor Ketenagalistrikan" (Jakarta, 13 Oktober 2020).

Kementerian ESDM, "Analisis Resiko Perizinan Berusaha Sub Sektor Energi Baru, Terbarukan Dan Konservasi Energi" (Jakarta, 13 Oktober 2020).

"Laporan Singkat Rapat Dengar Pendapat Umum Panja Badan Legislasi Dengan Kamar Dagang Industri (Kadin) Dan M. Mova Al Afghani, S.H., LLM.Eur., Ph.D Dalam Rangka Mendengarkan Masukan/Pandangan Atas Ruu Tentang Cipta Kerja" diakses pada 7 November 2020;

“Menteri Bambang Sampaikan Agenda Reformasi Regulasi: Tata Fungsi Dan Kelembagaan Sistem Peraturan Perundangan Indonesia” https://www.bappenas.go.id/id/berita-dan-siaran-pers/menteri-bambang-sampaikan-agenda-reformasi-regulasi-tata-fungsi-dan-kelembagaan-sistem-peraturan-perundangan-indonesia/ diakses pada 3 Mei 2020.

Mohamad Mova Al’Afghani, “The Elements of State Control”, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, 14 Januari 2013.

______________________, "Kritik Atas Pendekatan Regulasi Berbasis Risiko Dalam RUU Cipta Kerja" (Rapat Dengar Pendapat Umum Panja Badan Legislasi Dengan Kamar Dagang Industri (kadin) Dan M. Mova Al Afghani, S.H., L.LM. Eur., Ph.D Dalam Rangka Mendengarkan Masukan/Pandangan atas RUU Tentang Cipta Kerja, Teleconference, 9 Juni 2020) http://www.dpr.go.id/dokakd/dokumen/BALEG-RJ-20200610-034618-6897.pdf, diakses pada 3 Agustus 2020.

Muhammad Choirul, "Airlangga: UU Ciptaker Rampingkan Obesitas Regulasi" (news) diakses pada 8 November 2020.

Nassim Nicholas Taleb dan Joseph Norman, "Ethics of Precaution: Individual and Systemic Risk" New England Complex Systems Institute.

Philip Hampton, Reducing Administrative Burdens: Effective Inspection and Enforcement, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 2005.

"Rangkuman Rapat - Masukan RUU Cipta Kerja Bidang Kemudahan Dan Persyaratan Investasi — Badan Legislasi DPR-RI Rapat Dengar Pendapat Umum (RDPU) Dengan Kamar Dagang Dan Industri Indonesia (KADIN) Dan Akademisi Univ. Ibn Khaldun M. Mova, S.H, LL.M, Ph.D - JejakParlemen", https://wikidpr.org/rangkuman/baleg-rdpu-kadin-akademisi-masukan-ruu-ciptaker, diakses pada 7 November 2020;

Stephen Littlechild, Regulation of British Telecommunications Profitability: A Report to the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, Department of Trade and Industry, London, 1983.

Peraturan Perundang-undangan dan Putusan Pengadilan

Financial Services and Markets Act 2000.

Putusan MK Nomor 002/PUU-I/2003 tentang Pengujian UU Nomor 22 Tahun 2001 Tentang Minyak dan Gas Bumi, tanggal 21 Desember 2004.

Putusan MK Nomor 36/PUU-X/2012 tentang Pengujian UU Nomor 22 Tahun 2001 Tentang Minyak Dan Gas Bumi, tanggal 13 November 2012.

Water Industry Act 1991.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1814

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF view : 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.