Critical Review of the Constitutional Court’s Decision on the Presidential Threshold

Tinjauan Kritis Mengenai Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi tentang Ambang Batas Pencalonan Presiden

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31078/jk2041

Keywords:

Election, Multiparties, Presidential Threshold, Political Party, Presidential

Abstract


This article aims to enrich the literature on the threshold for presidential candidacy in Indonesia by: Firstly, summarizing the main criticisms of its implementation; Secondly, refuting the arguments of the Constitutional Court regarding the threshold’s potential to increase political support for the elected President and reduce the number of political parties. This research employs a qualitative methodology, utilizing a literature study design and case studies involving the Constitutional Court’s decisions on the presidential candidacy threshold, along with previous studies on the relationship between political parties and the President. In general, we have found that the primary criticisms of setting the presidential candidacy threshold revolve around its potentially unconstitutional implementation and its contribution to political oligarchy. In practice, setting the presidential candidacy threshold is entirely unrelated to an increase in political support for the President and cannot reduce the number of political parties.

Author Biographies

Denny Indra Sukmawan, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jakarta, Indonesia

Denny Indra Sukmawan was born on October 8, 1990, in Mataram. He attended State Elementary School 3 Tanjung Karang, Junior High School 02 Mataram, and Senior High School 01 Mataram for his education. Later, he completed his bachelor's degree at the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Padjadjaran University. He then pursued his master's degree in Defence Management at the University of Defence. Currently, Denny is pursuing his doctoral studies at the University of Liverpool, focusing on Politics (International Relations). Along with his role as an active educator at Universitas Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jakarta's Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Denny is also involved in writing for print and digital media, conducting research, and providing policy consultations for various Ministries/Agencies.

Syaugi Pratama, The General Election Supervisory Agency, Indonesia

Syaugi Pratama holds a Master of Law degree from the Faculty of Law, Master of State Law, University of Indonesia. He has also completed a short course on "Managing Ethnic Conflict and Religious Violence" at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterrey, California. His work experience includes being a Junior Legal at Syarif Fadillah Law Office from 2013 to 2015, a Senior Legal at 218 Law Office from 2016 to 2018, a Non-permanent Lecturer at the Faculty of Law Usahid Jakarta in 2018, and a Judicial Dispute Analyst from 2019 to 2021. Currently, he serves as the First Expert Legal Analyst in the Legal and Public Relations Bureau of Bawaslu RI, and has previously held roles such as Acting Head of Subdivision of Dispute Resolution Process and Law of Bawaslu East Kalimantan Province and Non-permanent Lecturer at the Faculty of Sharia UIN Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris.

References

“Arti Gugatan Dikabulkan, Ditolak, Dan Tidak Dapat Diterima.” hukumonline.com. 2011. https://www.hukumonline.com/klinik/a/putusan-hakim-dalam-acara-perdata-cl3157.

“Demokrat Jawarai Pileg 2009.” detikNews. 2009. https://news.detik.com/pemilu/d-1128844/demokrat-jawarai-pileg-2009-dengan-2085--suara.

“Diangkat Jadi Menteri Perdagangan, Zulkifli Hasan Punya Harta 32 M.” Kompas.com. 2022. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2022/06/15/13453811/diangkat-jadi-menteriperdagangan-zulkifli-hasan-punya-harta-rp-32-m.

“Disahkan KPU, Ini Perolehan Suara Pemilu Legislatif 2014.” kompas.com. 2014. https://s.id/referencejk

“Hasil Lengkap Perolehan Kursi DPR 2019-2024.” kompas.com. 2019. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2019/08/31/11152361/hasil-lengkap-perolehan-kursi-dpr-2019-2024.

“Inilah Hasil Pemilu Legislatif 2004.” detikNews. 2004. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-155421/inilah-hasil-pemilu-legislatif-2004.“Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu I dan II.” Kompas.com. 2021. https://www.kompas.com/stori/read/2021/04/23/124857379/kabinet-indonesia-bersatu-i-dan-ii.

“Prabowo Ditunjuk Jadi Menteri Pertahanan.” Antaranews.com. 2019. https://www.antaranews.com/berita/1126831/prabowo-ditunjuk-jadi-menteri-pertahanan.

“Sandiaga Uno Ditunjuk Jadi Menparekraf Gantikan Wishnutama.” Antaranews.com. 2020. https://www.antaranews.com/berita/1908492/sandiaga-uno-ditunjuk-jadimenparekraf-gantikan-wishnutama.

Abdurrachman, Satrio. “A Battle between Two Populists: The 2019 Presidential Election and the Resurgence of Indonesia’s Authoritarian Constitutional Tradition.” Australian Journal of Asian Law 19, no. 2 (2019): 175-95.

Albala, Adrián. “Bicameralism and Coalition Cabinets in Presidential Polities: A Configurational Analysis of the Coalition Formation and Duration Processes.” The British Journal of Politics and International Relations 19, no. 4 (2017): 735-54. doi:10.1177/1369148117727440. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1369148117727440

Al-Fatih, Sholahuddin. “Akibat Hukum Regulasi tentang Threshold dalam Pemilihan Umum Legislatif dan Pemilihan Presiden.” Jurnal Yudisial 12, no. 1 (2019): 17-38. doi:10.29123/jy.v12i1.258. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29123/jy.v12i1.258

Al-Hamdhi, Ridho. “Ideological Cleavage under Open-List Proportional Representation: Parties’ Position toward the 2019 Indonesian Presidential Threshold.” Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik 24, no. 3 (2021): 205-19. doi:10.22146/jsp.53514. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jsp.53514

Asshiddiqqie, Jimly. Hukum Acara Pengujian Undang-Undang. Jakarta: Konstitusi Press, 2006.

Bünte, Marco, and Mark R. Thompson. “Perilous Presidentialism in Southeast Asia?” Contemporary Politics 24, no. 3 (May 27, 2018): 251-65. doi:10.1080/13569775.2017.1413501. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13569775.2017.1413501

Chaisty, Paul, and Svitlana Chernykh. “How Do Minority Presidents Manage Multiparty Coalitions? Identifying and Analyzing the Payoffs to Coalition Parties in Presidential Systems.” Political Research Quarterly 70, no. 4 (2017): 762-77. doi:10.1177/1065912917715912. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912917715912

Chaisty, Paul, Nic Cheeseman, and Timothy J. Power. Coalitional Presidentialism in Comparative Perspective: Minority Presidents in Multiparty Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press, March 22, 2018. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198817208.001.0001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198817208.001.0001

Cheibub, Jose Antonio. Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, and Democracy. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511813344. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813344

Ghoffar, Abdul. 2018. “Problematika Presidential Threshold: Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi Dan Pengalaman Di Negara Lain”. Jurnal Konstitusi 15 (3):480-501. doi:10.31078/jk1532. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1532

Hanan, Djayadi. “Soliditas Koalisi Presidensial.” Kompas. 2019. https://www.kompas.id/baca/utama/2019/07/22/soliditas-koalisi-presidensial.

Heywood, Andrew. Politics. 5th ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.

Indrawan, Jerry, and Muhammad Prakoso Aji. “Penyederhanaan Partai Politik Melalui Parliamentary Threshold: Pelanggaran Sistematis Terhadap Kedaulatan Rakyat.” Jurnal Penelitian Politik 16, no. 2 (2019): 155-66. doi:10.14203/jpp.v16i2.802. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14203/jpp.v16i2.802

Kurnia, Titon Slamet. “Presidential Candidacy Threshold and Presidentialism Affirmation in Indonesia.” Padjadjaran Jurnal Ilmu Hukum 7, no. 3 (2020): 353-79. doi:10.22304/pjih.v7n3.a4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22304/pjih.v7n3.a4

Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia. Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi No. 49/PUUXVI/2018.

Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia. Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi No. 52/PUU-X/2012.

Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia. Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi No. 53/PUU-XV/2017.

Mainwaring, Scott. “Presidentialism, Multipartism, and Democracy: The Difficult Combination.” Comparative Political Studies 26, no. 2 (1993): 198-228. doi:10.1177/0010414093026002003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414093026002003

Mello, Eduardo, and Matias Spektor. “Brazil: The Costs of Multiparty Presidentialism.” Journal of Democracy 29, no. 2 (2018): 113-27. doi:10.1353/jod.2018.0031. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2018.0031

Mietzner, Marcus. “Authoritarian Innovations in Indonesia: Electoral Narrowing, Identity Politics and Executive Illiberalism.” Democratization 27, no. 6 (2020): 1021-36. doi:10.1080/13510347.2019.1704266. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2019.1704266

Neustadt, Richard. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents: The Politics of Leadership from Roosevelt to Reagan. New York: Free Press, 1990.

Nobre, Marcus. Limits of Democracy: From the June 2013 Uprisings in Brazil to the Bolsonaro Government. Cham: Springer, 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-16392-0

O’Neil, Patrick. Essentials of Comparative Politics. New York: W.W. Norton, 2020.

Prasetio, Rizki Bagus, and Febri Sianipar. “The Relevance of the Application of the Presidential Threshold and the Implementation of Simultaneous Elections in Indonesia.” Jurnal Penelitian Hukum De Jure 21, no. 2 (2021). doi:10.30641/dejure.2021.V21.267-284. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30641/dejure.2021.V21.267-284

Rose-Ackerman, Susan, Diane Desierto, and Natalia Volosin. “Hyper-Presidentialism: Separation of Powers without Checks and Balances in Argentina and the Philippines.” Berkeley Journal of International Law 29, no. 1 (2011): 246-333. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.13051/3618.

Slater, Dan. “Party Cartelization, Indonesian-Style: Presidential Power-Sharing and the Contingency of Democratic Opposition.” Journal of East Asian Studies 18, no. 1 (2018): 23-46. doi:10.1017/jea.2017.26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/jea.2017.26

Sumadi, Ahmad Fadlil. “Hukum Acara Mahkamah Konstitusi Dalam Teori Dan Praktik.” Jurnal Konstitusi 8, no. 6 (2011): 849-79. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31078/jk861

Tomsa, Dirk. “Regime Resilience and Presidential Politics in Indonesia.” Contemporary Politics 24, no. 3 (2018): 266-85. doi:10.1080/13569775.2017.1413502. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13569775.2017.1413502

Ufen, Andreas. “Political Finance and Corruption in Southeast Asia: Causes and Challenges.” In The Changing Face of Corruption in the Asia Pacific, edited by Marie dela Rama and Chris Rowley, 23-33. Elsevier, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-101109-6.00002-2

Zuhro, R. Siti. “Demokrasi Dan Pemilu Presiden 2019.” Jurnal Penelitian Politik 16, no. 1 (2019): 69-81. doi:10.14203/jpp.v16i1.782. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14203/jpp.v16i1.782

Downloads

Published

2023-12-01

How to Cite

Sukmawan, Denny Indra, and Syaugi Pratama. 2023. “Critical Review of the Constitutional Court’s Decision on the Presidential Threshold: Tinjauan Kritis Mengenai Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi Tentang Ambang Batas Pencalonan Presiden”. Jurnal Konstitusi 20 (4):556-75. https://doi.org/10.31078/jk2041.

Issue

Section

Articles