Anomali Asas Non-Retroaktif dalam Kejahatan Genosida, Bertentangan dengan HAM?
Keywords:Constitutional Court Decision, Genocide, Indonesian Human Rights Court, Non-Retrospective Principle, Rome Statute
The crime of genocide is one of the most serious international crimes stipulated in the Rome Statute. Previously, genocide was regulated in the Convention on Genocide entered into force on 12 January 1951. The convention and the Rome Statute do not allow retroactivity. However, retroactivity appears in the Indonesian Law on the Human Rights Court and is strengthened through the Indonesian Constitutional Court's Decision. This study focuses on the neglect of the non-retroactive principle in the Law on Human Rights Courts and the extent to which the retroactive period. This research uses normative-legal method with a statutory and case approaches. The result shows that ignoring the non-retoactive principle is contrary to international law and international human rights regulations. Hence, the Constitutional Court's decision that strengthens retroactivity can be interpreted that the Court maintains human rights while at the same time violates human rights by not accurately interpreting the word “derogation” and “restriction” in Article 28J of the 1945 Constitution.
Soekanto, Soejono. Penelitian Hukum Normatif. Jakarta: Rajawali Press, 2013.
Sommario, Emanuele. “Derogation from Human Rights Treaties in Situations of Natural or Man-Made Disasters.” In International Disaster Response Law, diedit oleh Andrea de Guttry, Marco Gestri, dan Gabriella Venturini, 323–52. The Hague: Asser Press, 2012.
Sunggono, Bambang. Metode Peneitian Hukum. Jakarta: Rajawali Pers, 1997.
Sunggono, Bambang. Asas Metodologi Penelitian Sebuah Pengenalan dan Penuntunan Langkah demi Langkah Pelaksanaan Penelitian. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2010.
D’Amato, Anthony A. “The Concept of Special Custom in International Law.” American Journal of International Law 63, no. 2 (1969): 211–23. https://doi.org/10.2307/2197411.
Justice, International Center for Transitional. “The Applicability of the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide to Events Which Occurred During the Early Twentieth Century Legal Analysis Prepared for the International Center for Transitional Justice,” 2002. https://www.ictj.org/publication/applicability-un-convention-prevention-and-punishment-crimegenocide-events-which, diakses pada 9 September 2021.
Kelsen, Hans. “Will the Judgment in the Nuremberg Trial Constitute a Precedent in International Law?” The International Law Quarterly 1, no. 2 (1947): 153–71.
Nurhidayatuloh & Febrian. “ASEAN and European Human Rights Mechanisms, What Should be Improved?” Padjadjaran Journal of Law 6, no. 1 (2019): 151–67. https://doi.org/10.22304/pjih.v6n1.a8.
Nurhidayatuloh, Febrian, Y. Annalisa, A. Idris, R.M. Ikhsan, S. Helena Primadianti, dan F. Zuhro. “Does limitation rule in international and regional human rights law instruments restrict its implementation?” International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering 8, no. 2 Special Issue 9 (2019): 597-600. https://doi.org/10.35940/ijrte.B1125.0982S919.
Robertson, Geoffrey. “Was There an Armenian Genocide?” University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy 4, no. 2 (2009): 83–127. http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page handle=hein.journals/tjlpp4&id=441&div=&collection=journals%5Cn
Schabas, William A. “Retroactive Application of the Genocide Convention.” University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy 4, no. 2 (2010): 36–59.
Situngkir, Danel Aditia. “Asas Legalitas Dalam Hukum Pidana Nasional Dan Hukum Pidana Internasional.” Soumatera Law Review 1, No.1 (2018): 22-42. https://doi.org/10.22216/soumlaw.v1i1.3398.
Suhaeb, Irsyad Dhahri S. “Retrospectivity and Human Rights in Indonesia: How Can Irregularities Be Resolved.” Indonesian Journal of International Law 10, no. 2 (2013): 339–60.
Weda, Made Darma. “Pengecualian Asas Legalitas Dalam Hukum Pidana.” Jurnal Hukum dan Peradilan 2, no.2 (2013): 203-224. https://doi.org/10.25216/jhp.2.2.2013.203-224.
Undang-undang Nomor 26 Tahun 2000 tentang Pengadilan HAM
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948). https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845258911.
Council of Europe/European Court of Human Rights. “Guide on Article 7 of the European Convention on Human Rights No punishment without law: the principle that only the law can define a crime and prescribe a penalty,” http://www.echr.coe.int. Diakses pada 9 September 2021.
Jurists, American Association for the International Commission of. “Siracusa Principle on the Limitation and Derogation Provisions in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,” 1985. http://www.icj.org.Diakses pada 9 September 2021.
The 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Article 2 (1) (b).
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court” (1998). https://www.icc-cpi.int/sites/
United Nations. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the General Assembly on 10 Dec 1948 (1948). sumber Internet https://www.un.org/en/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights#:~:text=Drafted%20by%20representatives%20with%20different,all%20peoples%20and%20all%20nations. Diakses pada 9 September 2021.
Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia. Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi (MK) Nomor 0065/PUU-II/2004.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Copyright of the published articles will be transferred to the journal as the publisher of the manuscripts. Therefore, the author confirms that the copyright has been managed by the publisher.
- The publisher of Jurnal Konstitusi is The Registrar and Secretariat General of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia.
- The copyright follows Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License: This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. If you remix, adapt, or build upon the material, you must license the modified material under identical terms.