Prinsip Isonomi di Indonesia: Filosofi, Makna, dan Perbandingan

Aan Efendi, Freddy Poernomo

Abstract


The regulation of the principle of isonomy in Article 28D paragraph (1) of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia and its derivative laws without an explanation of its meaning has implications for misunderstanding what it means. This study seeks answers to the philosophical question and the meaning of the isonomy principle and compares it with the isonomy principle in English law which is based on the rule of law. Using theoretical research, three answers were obtained. The social contract which contains an agreement on the surrender of natural rights to enforce law by individuals to the state and places individuals in the same position and treatment in law enforcement by the state becomes a philosophy of isonomy principles. The principle of isonomy in Indonesia is based on distributive justice where equal treatment before the law means proportionality with regard to people's class, position, achievements, and functions of people in the social order. In English law, the principle of isonomy is based on commutative justice where all people regardless of class, position, social status or function, they are under the same law and justice.

 


Keywords


distributive justice; principle of isonomy; social contracts

Full Text:

PDF

References


Buku

Alder, John. Constitutional and Administrative Law, 5 Th Edition. Hampshire & New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Asshidiqie, Jimly. Komentar Atas Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945. Jakarta: Sinar Grafika, 2009.

Australian Human Rights Commission. Equal Before the Law Towards Disability Justice Strategies. Sidney: Australian Human Rights Commission, 2014.

Boucher, David, and Paul Kelly. The Social Contract from Hobbes to Rawls. London and New York: Routledge, 1994.

Bradley, A W, and K D Ewing. Constitutional and Administrative Law, 14Th Edition. Essex: Pearson Longman, 2007.

Cohen, Morris L., and Kent C. Olson. Legal Research. St. Paul Minn: West Publishing Co, 1992.

Curley, Edwin. Thomas Hobbes Leviathan with Selected Variants from the Latin Edition of 1668. Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, 1994.

Dicey, A.V. Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution. Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1982.

Finnis, John. Natural Law & Natural Rights, Second Edition. Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Goudappel, Flora A.N.J., and Ernst M.H. Hirsch Ballin. Democracy and Eule of Law in European Union Essays in Honour of Jaap W. de Zwann. The Hague: Asser Press, 2016.

Hamowy, Ronald. The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek Volume XVII The Constitution of Liberty The Definitive Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1960.

Leyden, W Von. Aristotle on Equality and Justice His Political Argument. the United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan, 1985.

Liddell, H.G. A Greek and English Lexion. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.

Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia. Naskah Komprehensif Perubahan Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945 Latar Belakang, Proses, Dan Hasil Pembahasan 1999-2002 Buku VIII Warga Negara Dan Penduduk, Hak Asasi Manusia Dan Agama. Jakarta: Sekretariat Jenderal dan Kepaniteraan Mahkamah Konstitusi, 2010.

Morris, Christopher W. The Social Contract Theorists : Critical Essays On Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau Critical Essays On the Classics. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999.

Morrison, Wayne. Jurisprudence: From the Greeks to Post-Modernists. London and New York: Routledge, 2016.

Pringgodigdo, H.A.K. Tiga Undang-Undang Dasar. Jakarta: Pembangunan, 1981.

Prodjodikoro, Wirjono. Azas-Azas Hukum Tata Negara Di Indonesia. Djakarta: Penerbit Dian Rakyat, 1983.

Ratnapala, Suri. Jurisprudence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Shapiro, Ian. Two Treatise of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration John Locke. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2003.

Silkenat, James R., James E. Hickey Jr, and Peter D. Barenboim. The Legal Doctrines of the Rule of Law and the Legal State (Rechtsstaat). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2014.

Sir Ivor Jennings. The Law and The Constitution, Fifth Edition. Kent: The English Language Book Society and Hodder and Stoughton, 1979.

Tschentscher, Axel. The Basic Law. Würzburg: Jurisprudentia Verlag, 2002.

Verma, SK, and M Afzal Wani. Legal Research and Methodology. New Delhi: Indian Law Institute, 2001.

Jurnal

Abramchayev, Liliya. “A Social Contract Argument for the State’s Duty to Protect from Private Violence.” St. John’s Journal of Legal Commentary 18 (2004): 849–74.

Allen, Anita L. “Social Contract Theory in American Case Law.” Florida Law Review 51, no. 1 (1999): 1–40.

Bhuta, Nehal. “Are Sovereigns Entitled to the Benefit of the International Rule of Law? An Introduction.” European Journal of International Law 22, no. 2 (2011): 313–14. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejil/chr043.

Byrne, James W. “The Basis of the Natural Law in Locke’s Philosophy.” Catholic Lawyer 10 (1964): 55–63.

Chroust, Anton-Hermann. “Aristotle’s Conception of Equity (Epieikeia).” Notre Dame Law. 18, no. 2 (1942): 119.

———. “Aristotle’s Conception of Justice.” Notre Dame Law Review 17, no. 2 (1942): 129–43.

Clifford, Jarlath. “From Historical Philosophical Thoght to Modern Legal Norms.” The Equal Rights Review 1 (2008): 13.

Earl Johnson, Jr. “Equality Before the Law and the Social Contract: When Will the United States Finally Guarantee Its People the Equality Before the Law That the Social Contract Demands?” Fordham Urban Law Journal 37, no. 1 (2010): 161.

Flores, Imer. “Law, Liberty and the Rule of Law (in a Constitutional Democracy).” Georgetown Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper Number 12- (2013).

Gall, Gerald L. “Some Miscellaneous Aspects of Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.” Alberta Law Review XXIV, no. 3 (1986): 462.

Gosalbo-Bono, Ricardo. “The Significance of the Rule of Law and Its Implications for the European Union and the United States.” University of Pittsburgh Law Review 72, no. 2 (2010): 229–360. https://doi.org/10.5195/LAWREVIEW.2010.159.

Heyman, Steven J. “The First Duty of Government: Protecfion, Liberty and the Fourteenth Amendment.” Rights, 2017, 449–514. https://doi.org/10.2307/1372846.

Hutchinson, Terry. “The Doctrinal Method: Incorporating Interdisciplinary Methods in Reforming the Law.” Erasmus Law Review, no. 3 (2016): 132. https://doi.org/10.5553/elr.000055.

Johnson, Hon. Earl. “Will Gideon’s Trumpet Sound a New Melody? The Globalization of Constitutional Values and Its Implications for a Right to Equal Justice in Civil Cases.” Seattle Journal for Social Justice 2, no. 1 (2003): 201-241. https://digitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu/sjsj/vol2/iss1/56.

Owada, Hisashi. “The Rule of Law in Globalizing World - An Asian Perspective.” Washington University Global Studies Law Review 8, no. 2 (2009): 187–205.

Principle, Michael L. “Albert Venn Dicey and the Principles of the Rule of Law: Is Justice Blind? A Comparative Analysis of the United States and Great Britain.” Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review 22, no. 357 (2000): 359.

Seibert-Fohr, Anja. “The Rise of Equality in International Law and Its Pitfalls: Learning From Comparative Constitutional Law.” Brooklyn Journal of International Law 35, no. 1–39 (2010): 5–6.

Stein, Robert. “Rule of Law: What Does It Mean?” Minnesota Journal of International Law 18, no. 2 (2009): 293–303.

Vlastos, Gregory. “Equality and Justice in Early Greek Cosmologies.” Studies in Presocratic Philosophy: The Beginnings of Philosophy 1, no. 3 (2016): 56–91. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv24rgc1n.10.

Weirich, Paul. “Rousseau on Equality.” History of Philosophy Quarterly 9, no. 2 (1992): 191.

Winter, Ralph K. Jr. “Changing Concepts of Equality: From Equality before the Law to the Welfare State.” Wash. U. L. Q 1, no. 3 (2015): 741.

Wright, R. George. “Equal Protection and the Idea of Equality.” SSRN Electronic Journal, 2015: 1-53. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2648608.

Disertasi/Tesis

Hopkins, Anthony. “Equality Before the Law: The Importance of Understanding the Experience of ‘Other’ in the Criminal Justice System.” University of Canberra, 2015.

Keyt, David. Aritotle on Freedom and Equality, Dalam Georgios Anagnostopoulos and Gerasimos Santas (Eds), Democracy, Justice, and Equality in Ancient Greece Historical and Philosophical Perspectives. Switzerland: Springer, n.d.

Kreider, David. “Isonomia-The Greek Idea of Freedom.” Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers, Number 5244, 1973.

Peraturan Perundang-undangan

Indonesia. Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945 (n.d.).

Indonesia. Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2004 tentang Pemerintahan Daerah. LN No. 125 Tahun 2004. TLN No.4437.

Indonesia. Undang-Undang Nomor 17 Tahun 2014 tentang Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, dan Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah. LN No. 182 Tahun 2014. TLN No.5568.

Putusan Pengadilan

Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia. Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi Nomor 73/PUU-IX/2011.

Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia. Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi Nomor 76/PUU-XII/2014.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1921

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF view : 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.