Konsep Fairness John Rawls, Kritik dan Relevansinya

Sunaryo Sunaryo

Abstract


Keadilan merupakan hal yang sangat fundamental dalam masyarakat majemuk. Pandangan Rawls mengenai keadilan yang dipahami sebagai Justice as Fairness mencoba menawarkan bagaimana kita menata masyarakat yang majemuk secara fair. Konsep fairness dipahami sebagai kemampuan untuk bersikap dan bertindak yang dapat diterima dan didukung secara timbal balik. Dalam pandangan Rawls, adanya penerimaan dan dukungan secara timbal balik dari para subjek yang bebas dan setara, tanpa intimidasi dan tekanan adalah tanda bahwa kesepakatan tersebut fair. Ia menyebut sikap semacam ini sebagai kewarasan publik (reasonableness). Untuk membangun masyarakat majemuk yang fair, kelompok-kelompok yang ada di dalam masyarakat harus mampu bertindak secara waras (reasonable). Dengan kapasitas ini mereka akan mampu menyepakati prinsip-prinsip keadilan yang akan menjadi basis kesatuan sosial (basis of social unity) mereka. Konsep mengenai fairness ini sangat penting untuk masyarakat majemuk seperti Indonesia. Jika kita gagal menghadirkan keadilan dalam masyarakat majemuk, maka kesatuan kita sebagai sebuah masyarakat akan berada dalam ancaman serius.

Justice is very fundamental in a pluralistic society. Rawls's view of justice, which is understood as fairness, tries to offer how we organize a pluralistic society fairly. This view is crucial to be considered. The concept of fairness is understood as the ability to act that is acceptable and supported reciprocally. In Rawls's view, the existence of mutual acceptance and support from free and equal citizens without intimidation and pressure signifies that the agreement is fair. He called this kind of attitude reasonableness. In a just society, people must be able to act reasonably. With this capacity, they will agree on the principles of justice, which will be the basis of their social unity. The concept of fairness is essential for a pluralistic society like Indonesia. If we fail to bring justice in a pluralistic society, then our unity as a society will be under serious threat.


Keywords


Fairness; Keadilan; Kebebasan yang Setara; Kewarasan Publik; Konsensus Berkeadilan.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1911

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